Pre Diabetes

What is prediabetes

Prediabetes is the stage before diabetes developing diabetespment. At this stage, the blood glugose level is higher than normal, but did not reach the diabetes diagnosis stage (i.e. a fasting plasma glucose level of 7.0 mmol/L or higher). Not everyone with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes, but many of them will in the future.

How to diagnose prediabetes

There are two different tests can be used by your doctor to know whether you have pre-diabetes:

  1. Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG)
  2. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

Impaired fasting glucose (IFG): If your blood glucose level is between 100- 125 mg/dl (5.6-6.9 mmol/L), these level indicate that you fall into the prediabetes category.

If your blood glucose level is abnormal following the FPG

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): if your blood glucose level is abnormal following the OGTTAfter drinking a glucose rich beverage (75 grams of carbohydrate, OGTT), and if the 2 hours blood glucose is 140-199 mg/dL), these levels indicate that you have prediabetes.

More recently Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) can be used for diagnosis. If A1C level is between (6 – 6.4 ), these indicate that the person is pre diabetic.

What are the Risk factors for developing prediabetes

  1. Being 40 years of age or older.
  2. Having a first degree relative (parent or sibling) who has or had type 2 diabetes.
  3. Having a history of impaired glucose regulation (BG >/5.6 or < 7.0 mmol/L) prediabetes.
  4. Having a history of gestational diabetes mellitus or have had a large baby (more than 4 Kilograms)
  5. Having high blood pressure, with low HDL (the good fat), and high triglyceride.
  6. Being overweight, especially at the centre of your abdomen.
  7. People who do not exercise regularly.
  8. Belong to a certain ethnic groups (midel east , Asian,South Asian).
  9. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome and overweight.
  10. People with severe mental health problems and on certain medications (like…)

We are allowed to use these as they are provided by the world diabetes day !!!

Research has shown that prediabetes management can prevent or delay diabetes development. Losing even (5-10 percent of your total body weight), through a healthy eating (low calories with low fat intake), and regular exercise (at least 150 minutes per week) can prevent diabetes by up to 58 percent in two studies.

Some people may benefit from adding metformin (glucophage) tablet in addition toplus the life style modificationschanges to prevent diabetes development. (Different font or colour) We at Kuwait diabete team highly recommend taking glucophage in Kuwaiti population if your blood glucose reaches 6.0 mmol/L, and having had a serious attempt on lifestyle modifications.

I have been diagnosed with prediabetes, what is next

Being active and eating healthy diet is very important. Your blood gluose level should be assessed yearly by your doctor and not through the use of the self blood glucose meter. Of course should you develop any diabetes symptoms you need to consult your doctor early.

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